Not quantitative, qualitative education plays an important role in technological advancement. When we talk about qualitative education, we think to competent teachers, who impart education. Therefore, to prepare competent teachers, teaching technology has developed pre-service and in- service teacher education programmes. Now, there is a demand for competent teachers at all levels of education and the teacher education programmes, claiming production of competent teachers must be judged by the degree to which it develops competencies, skills and activities needed for successful functioning of teachers.
The standard of education of a country largely depends on the quality and competence of the teachers of that country and this quality and competence of the teachers depends on the teacher education programme. Thus to make significant development of a nation, we have to look towards the teachers. The teacher needs to be conceived as a ‘change agent’ for which they may be well acquainted and informed about day to day development because efficiency of an educational system is primarily determined by the efficiency of teachers. The Education Commission (1964-66) have pointed out that, “off all the different factors which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competence and character of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant.”
To prepare an efficient teacher is a challenging task today. Previously, it was thought that teacher are born not made but now recent researches in this field proved that efficient and competent teachers can be produced by modifying their behaviour. The purpose of the teacher education programmes is to prepare effective and competent teachers. The success of any educational reform depends on the quality of teacher, which in turn depends to a large extent on the quality of the teacher education programme.
The success of teacher education programme depends on developing a skill to identify different teaching objectives, attitude and patterns of teaching behavior among the college students, who have been preparing to enter the teaching profession. The success also depends on enabling the student teacher to perform certain teaching behavior patterns, string them together into strategies of classroom instruction and carry them out to compare different patterns of his own teaching behavior and different strategies of teaching in terms of its consequences.
Proper training to teacher is of great importance in improving the quality of education. The process of improvement in teacher education programme is in progress in our country, but these improvements are marginal in nature.
It is now, generally realized that researches must be directed towards the improvement of present day teacher education programmes. The training of teachers demands our urgent attention. In a rapidly changing world, the old system of teacher training no longer seems to meet the requirements of our schools and the society. The problem is of quality and efficiency of our teachers. How can a teacher do a better job of teaching is the main problem. The solution for the improvement of teaching in our schools is to turn outeffective teachers form our teacher training institutions. The minimum requirement of any teacher training programme is that it should enable the trainee to acquire the basic skills and competence of a good teacher.
An effective teacher guides the learning activities of the children so that they may learn. A teacher as a professional develops certain skills to use his knowledge to organize, encourage and assist certain generally approved skills of learning. This involves a careful study of his own behaviour in some systematic and objective manner, so that the teacher may gain deep insight into his own pattern of influence.
There are various techniques to modify the teacher behavior, which are emphasized and implemented during teacher education programme for prospective and in-service teachers to make them competent and effective.
The Education Commission (1964-1966) have stated “Investment in teacher education can yield very rich dividends because the financial resources required are small when measured against the resulting improvements in the education of millions……. First rate teacher training institutions can thus play a crucial role in the development of education.”
Various committees and commissions appointed from time to time have pointed out defects and deficiencies in the present programmes of teacher education. It is considered to be the weaker link in the educational system. Various commissions have made suggestions for the improvement of different aspects of teacher education like contacts of teacher education institutions with schools, universities and among themselves, admission procedures, organizational structure, curriculum, desirable qualifications of teacher educators, their teaching methods and the most important one, namely students teaching. Students’ teaching is the pivot of teacher education programme. But still the present situation in student teaching programme is highly disappointing.
The National Commission on teachers and Central Ministry of Education in its document “Challenge of Education – A Policy perspective” have pointed out these deficiencies – “Much of teacher education is irrelevant even to contemporary requirements, leave alone those of the future…. The teacher training too is not planned and organized to develop the spirit of inquiry, initiative, scientific temper, manual dexterity, conceptual clarity and linguistic, skills for effective speaking and writing which teacher are expected to impart to their students. Adequate attention is also not given to develop communication skills which are crucial to the function of the teachers. The training programme also does not provide for developing receptivity to induction of modern educational aids nor does it impart skills to operate even audio-visual equipment,”
The state of teacher education programme has been criticized by many research workers. Popham and Bakerstated that – “Trained and untrained teachers did not differ significantly regarding bringing about learning in pupils”
In Pellberg (1970) referred to the traditional teacher education programme – “The traditional teacher education programme consists of two main elements, theoretical courses and practice teaching, covering the philosophical, sociological and historical foundations of education and teaching methodology, are mainly verbal, tend to be abstract and are sometimes vague, consequently, they affect cognitive and attitudinal rather than behavioural changes in teachers, with regards to supervised student teaching, it is generally assured that during this period the student teacher will develop proficiency in basic teaching skills and classroom main segment, and with it, the confidence in his new role. In practice, however, in service supervision of student teachers and teacher tends to be very limited and superficial. The supervision lacks the objective feedback on performance, essential both to motivating and directing behavioural modifications. The regular classroom situation neither encourages, nor allows the students an opportunity to best alternative methods and style essential for developing effective strategies.”
In this way the teacher education programme can be classified into two parts-one is theoretical and other is practice. The theory is given more weightage in evaluation than practical aspect. This shows that practice teaching is often neglected in teacher education programme.
Research in teaching is yet a young science. Teaching should now be looked upon as a set of skills used by the teacher in classroom. A skill is a set of behaviour aiming at specific objectives. Like any other behaviour, teaching, can also be modified. Thisrequires a systematic analysis of what teaching is and what behaviours of teachers contribute to effective learning in the pupils.
According to Allen (1970) teaching consists of acts or behaviours. It is considered that attitudes, personality, intelligence and many other factors affect the success of a teacher. However, all of these factors contribute to produce certain acts or behaviour of teachers.
Research in teaching and teacher behaviour in Indiahas for long been conducted by standing outside the class-’ rooms and therefore study of actual classroom behaviour of teachers has been neglected. Buch (1974) has suggested that various concerted attempts will have to be made in research or teaching in general and behaviour in particular if the desired objectives of teaching are to be realized. He has further emphasized the need to conduct studies in modification of class-room behaviour of teachers. Thus experimental studies are to be carried out in order to examine the hypotheses generated in the attempt to study the potentiality of different techniques like Simulated Teaching, Micro-teaching and Interaction Analysis on various characteristics and class-room behaviour of teachers.
Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the field of education. Whatever policies may be laid down in the ultimate analysis there have to be interpreted and implemented by teachers as much through their personal example as through teaching learning process. We are on the threshold of the development of new technologies likely to revolutionize teaching in class room. But,unfortunately, the process of updating the curricula of teacher education has been very slow. Much of teacher educator is irrelevant even to contemporary requirements, leave alone those of the future. The teacher training too is not planned and organized to develop the sprit of inquiry, initiative, scientific temper, manual dexterity, conceptual clarity and linguistic skills for effective speaking and writing which teachers are expected to impart to their students. Adequate attention also not given to develop communication skills which are crucial to the function of the teachers. The training programme also does not provide the developing receptivity to induction of modern educational aids nor does it impart skills to operate even audiovisual equipment.
The curriculum for teachers’ training needs to berevised in the light of the new policy thrusts. In particular, there should be an emphasis on integration of education and culture, work experience, physical education and sports,the study of Indian culture and problems of the unity and integration of India. Planning and management are emerging areas and curriculum should bring out the importance ofthese areas. Education technology will influence not only methodology of teaching learning process but also the contents and their design. These aspects should also be takeninto account while framing the curriculum.
“National Policy on Education 1986 has stressed the need for a wider perspective in education and resource based learning strategies. It has broadened the scope of curriculum and enriched learning skills. This enhanced responsibility can be adequately performed only when teachers are equipped with requisite professional competencies. The teacher education programs, as they are, do not adequately develop the mastery of such competencies. It has, therefore, been emphasized that innovative approaches may be inducted into teacher training to sharpen the teaching competencies in both pre-service and in-service teachers.
The goals of education can not be achieved unless teachers have the necessary skills and competencies. The skills and competencies can be developed through systematic approach revitalize and modernize teacher education.
The revitalization and modernization of teacher education programmes involve not only curriculum reforms but process reforms; curriculum remains only a mute document unless it is translated into performance through appropriate transactions. It has been observed that teachers are over loaded with theoretical portions but do not have the necessary competencies to translate these into action. The gap between theory and practice is proverbial.
In recent years several innovations have been developed to equip teachers with the requisite competencies and skills to teach effectively. Interaction analysis based on practice teaching training in teaching skills using micro-teaching approach and simulated teaching exercise are some of innovative technologies through which effective training program can be transacted. The present mode also pointed out each one of these technologies, its major emphasis on the use of micro-teaching in Indian situation for developing the required skills of teaching at the mastery level.
At present in teacher training intuitions, the student teachers are trained through traditional approach of teaching and measurement of the extent to which the trainee acquires a skill in particular and general teaching competence is very vague and unscientific. Hence in order to make teacher education proaramme effective and to bring qualitative improvement, some other technique or approach should be adopted so that the opportunity for the development of various skills among teachers may be increased. Micro-teaching which is one of the recent innovations in teacher education may be an answer of our problem.
A good teacher is at first a good individual. He is also learned and trained individual. We are, however, convinced that the most important factors in the contemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher – his personal qualities, his educational qualifications, his professional training and the place that he occupies in the school as well as in community. The reputation of a school and itsinfluence on the life of the community invariably depend on the kind of teachers working init
DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS USED IN THE PROBLEM
According to some authors teaching competency includes knowledge, attitude, skill and other teacher characteristics (Haskew, 1956, Wilson, 1973). Some others perceive teaching competence as teacher behaviours that produce intended effects (Medley and Metzel, 1973, Biddle, 1974).
Rama (1979) defines teaching competency as, “the ability of a teacher manifested through a set of overt teacher classroom behaviours which is a resultant of the interaction between the presage and the product variables of teaching within a social setting”. Considering the definition of the term it may pointed out that teaching process is determined by knowledge, a set of abilities, attitudes and skills (presage variables) which in term determine pupil outcomes. Thus, the term “teaching” can be defined as a set of observable teacher behaviours that facilitate or bring about pupil learning and “teaching competency” means an effective performance of all the observable teacher behaviour that bring about desirable pupil outcomes.
In the present study, teaching is perceived, as a set of teaching skills where in a teaching skill is a set of teaching behaviours that facilitate or bring about a specific instructional objective. In other words, teaching competency involves effective use of various teaching skills.
PUPIL Teachers: It includes those persons who were doing one-year B.Ed. course under various colleges of secondary teachers training in Uttar Pradesh.
MICRO TEACHING: Allen and Ryan (1969) described microteaching as “A teacher instructs four or five students for a short time and then talks it over with another adult. An experienced observer would emphasize the fact that the teacher concentrated on a specific training skill or technique and utilized several sources of feedback, such a supervisor, the students, the teacher’s own reflections and the play-back of Video-tapes. The experienced observer would also note that the teacher has an opportunity to repeat the entire process by re-teaching the lesson and again having his performance critiqued and that in the second and subsequent cycles he teaches different.
Passi (1976) defined microteaching as “A training technique which requires student teachers to teach a single concept using specified teaching skill to a small number of pupils in a short duration time. The most important point in microteaching is that teachingis practiced in terms of definable, observable, measurable and controllable teaching skills”.
Sharma (1981) defined microteaching as “A specific teacher training technique through which trainee practices the various teaching skills in a specific situation with the help of feedback with a view to increase the student’s involvement. Specific situation means small time to practice (5 – 7 minutes), small number of pupils(5-7) andsmalllength of practicing material.
There are various skills that can be developed among student teachers through micro teaching. But the researcher will lay more emphasis on five skills.
1.Skill of Reinforcement 2. Skill of Probing Questioning 3. Skill of Stimulus Variation 4. Skill of Illustrating with Examples 5. Skill of Explaining
CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK
A pre-requisite to a scientific study of any phenomenon is a conceptual framework that will permit the researcher to understand and eventually predict the arousal, direction and persistence of the behaviour. In the present section an attempt has been made to throw some light on some of the persisting questions and problems that will help in developing a conceptual framework for the present investigation. The Present section is divided into two sub-sections –
1. Concept of Teaching Competency
2. Concept of Micro Teaching
2.1 CONCEPT OF Teaching Competency
Teaching is an important part of educational process. Its special function is to impart knowledge, develop understanding and skills. Teaching is usually associated with 3R’ i.e., Reading, Writing and Arithmetic-imparting knowledge of school subjects. Education, on the other hand, has a wider connotation in terms of 7R’s, i.e., Reading, Writing, Arithmetic (denoting school subjects) and Rights, Responsibilities, Relationships and Recreation (new requirement and ideals of democratic set up). In teaching, we limit our outlook omitting those more important means of education which are involved in the school as a systematically organized social community, including its tone or general moral atmosphere, its government and discipline and that potent influence – the personality of the teacher.
Teaching is a relationship, which is established among three focal points in education – the teacher, the students and the subject matter. Teaching is the process by which the teacher brings the students and the subject matter together. The teacher and the taught are active, the former in teaching and the latter in learning.
Modern teaching is not a mechanical process. It is exacting and intricate as well. Teaching is not “telling and testing”. Teaching is a complex art of guiding students through variety of selected experiences towards the attainment of appropriate teaching-learning goals.
Definitions of Teaching
Teaching has been defined by different psychologists and educationists in different ways. Some of the viewpoints are as under:
American Educational Research Association Commission (1962) mentioned that teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behaviour potential of another person.
According to Morrison (1934), “Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and less mature one which is designed to further the education of the latter.”
In view of Flander, “Teaching is an interacting process. Interaction means participation of both teacher and students and both are benefited by this. The interaction takes place for achieving desired objectives”.
In view of Medley (1982), “Teaching involves a lot of language skills, pedagogic knowledge, information technology skills and subject knowledge”.
Meaning of Competency
The term “competency” or “competence” is frequently used when we talk about any profession or work that express one’s quality of being competent, possessing adequate professional skills, knowledge, qualification or capacity. When we talk about the teacher or his profession, we come to understand that teaching constitutes one of the major tasks of a teacher “teaching competency”. Hence, “teaching competency”, in one way or the other, has been a debatable term. Both the terms were tried to be defined separately and also together in different ways by social scientists at different time.
The term “teaching” as defined by Bhattacharya (1974), involves “perceiving the process analytically as constituting a host of activities”. Likewise the term “competency” defined by Brown (1975) and Gage (1972) if we take in the essence of teaching profession, refer to the criteria that determine teaching effectiveness. The reviews of research on teacher effectiveness point to the futility of efforts in identifying teacher-effectiveness criteria. But the recent upsurge in research provides conditions and optimism.Rosenshine (1971) state quite confidently that pupils outcomes, pupils achievement, student liking, etc. may be taken as the criteria of teacher-effectiveness (Ebel, 1969: Rosenshine, 1971).
However, the term ‘teaching competence’ as defined by Flanders and Simon (1969) includes more than the mere teacher effectiveness and pupil outcomes. According to Haskew (1956) and Wilson (1973) it includes knowledge, skill and other teacher characteristics. Medley and Mitzel (1973) and Biddle (1964) perceive ‘teacher-competence’ as teacher behaviours that produce intended effects. Rama (1979) gives a comprehensive definition of the term teaching-competency as the ability of a teacher manifested through a set of overt teacher classroom behaviour. In other words, it is a set of observable teacher behaviours that bring about pupil learning. Hence for the purpose of this study ‘teaching-competency’ would mean: “Effective performance of all observable teacher behaviours that bring about desired prospective teacher outcomes.”
2.2 Concept of Micro-teaching
Teaching is a unique and complex activity. It is mysterious in its success and failures. A peep into research on teachers andteaching effectiveness conducted during the current century reveals that majority of the studies in this area were directed towards finding out characteristic of good and bad teachers. The dominant theme of these studies had been the search for good teachers, but the yield has not been high.
In the programme of teacher training, ‘Student Teaching’ occupies a pivotal place. Unless the teacher can be effective in the class room, the knowledge of theory and other things is of no use. Unfortunately, this important aspect of teacher-training programmeis not given due attention in most colleges of education. Unless the teacher can teach effectively in the class room, his training can not be complete. There is a need to pay more attention to this aspect of teacher-training.
Several innovations have been designed to strengthen the programmes of student teaching. Micro-teaching is one of the recent ones. It is relatively a new departure in teacher training. It employs analytical approach to teaching and training (Jangira, 1983, 1984).
The term micro-teaching was first coined in 1963, but the concept has never been a static one. It continued to grow and change and developed both in focus and format. Microteaching is a laboratory technique of teacher training in which the complexities of normal class room teaching are simplified. It is described as a ‘Scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time’ (Allen and Ryan, 1969). The scaling down been done in three directions
Ø The duration of a microteaching session is only from five to fifteen minutes.
Ø The size of the class rangesfrom four to ten students.
Ø The whole process of ‘Student Teaching’ is broken up into a number of skills; and training in the skills of teaching is provided separately in micro- lesson sessions.
History of Micro-teaching
In 1961, at Stanford University a doctoral candidate, Keith Acheson, discovered a newspaper article about a GermanScientist who had invented a portable videotape recorder. He was working with Rober N. Busch and Dwight W. Allen who had received a grant from the Ford Foundation to examine those experiences which might be relevant for teaching interns in an innovative teacher education programme. As a part of the teacher education curriculum, each intern was expected to participate in reduced teaching exercises called a demonstration teaching’. Each intern taught five or six student a brief lesson while remaining students played various roles. Most of the professors and certainly the interns agreed that the experience was an over dramatized anxiety – producing session that helped no one. What might have been a rewarding experience for the interns often turned out to be a verbal battle between them and the supervisor who was supposed to provide feedback on how to cope with situation encountered in the demonstration teaching? The intern-supervisor conflict revolved around the problem of convincing the intern that certain undesirableactivities actually took place in such demonstration sessions. Either the intern did not see what was occurring or he did not wish torecognize it.
Acheson saw the possibility of using the Videotape to provide immediate feedback to the intern on what occurred in the demonstration lesson and to establish a common frame of reference between the intern and the supervisor, with support from Bush and Allen. Acheson and other standford graduate students began to explore several different uses of the portable videotape recorder and its potential and modifying and channeling intern behaviour toward desired objectives, and for examining alternative approaches for student teaching experiences.
During the summer of 1963, more than 60 teacher education candidates in the intern programme were randomly divided into two equal groups. Half of them got microteaching training, the other half the standard student teaching experience in local cooperatingschools. It was during this summer that Video-tape was first used in micro- teaching. The wedding of video-tape to micro-teaching technique was a happy association, though it has since resulted in much misunderstanding of the role of videotape. Video-tape is an important but not a necessary part of the process.
Definitions of Microteaching
Micro-teaching has been defined differently by different educationists. Some of its definitions are a follows
Allen (l96) defined micro-teaching as “Scaled-down teaching encounter in class size and class time.”
Bush (1966) defined it a “A teacher-education technique which allows teachers to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in a planned series of five to ten minutes encounters with a small group of real students, often with an opportunity to observe the results on Video-tape”.
Cooper and Stround (1966) defined it as “A scaled-down encounter in which the intern teaches for a short period of time, to a group of four students on some topic in his teaching subjects”.
Meir (1968) defined the concept by saying that micro-teaching is a scaled-down sample of teaching. The term ‘micro’ not only denotes the reduction in lesson and Class size but also adds scientific commutation of precision, in the sense that microteaching, by having down the edge of observation to a fine cutting process – enables an objective quantitative and qualitative analysis of therecorded behaviours. Micro-teaching is essentially an opportunity for either pre-service or in-service teachers to develop and improve their pedagogical skills with a small group of pupils (3 to 7) by means of brief (3 to 7 minutes) single concept lessons which are recorded on Video-tape for reviewing, responding, refining and re- teaching.
Allen and Eve (1968) defined microteaching as “A system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specific teaching behaviour and to practice teaching under controlled conditions”.
Allen and Ryan (1969) described microteaching as “A teacher instructs four or five students for a short time and then talks it over with another adult. An experienced observer would emphasize the fact that the teacher concentrated on a specific training skill or technique and utilized several sources of feedback, such a supervisor, the students, the teacher’s own reflections and the play-back of Video-tapes. The experienced observer would also note that the teacher has an opportunity to repeat the entire process by re-teachingthe lesson and again having his performance critiqued, and that in the second and subsequent cycles he teaches different
McKnight (1971) said “Microteaching is a scaled down but realistic class-room context which offers a helpful setting for a teacher (experienced or unexperienced) to acquire new teaching skills arid to refine old ones. It does so by reducing the complexity and scope of such classroom components the number of pupils, and length of lesson, by providing trainees with information about their performance immediately after completion of their lesson”.
Clift et al. (1976) defined microteaching as “a teacher training procedure which reduces the teaching situation to simpler andmore controlled encounter achieved by limiting the practice teaching to a specific skill and reducing teaching time and class size”.
Passi (1976) defined microteaching as “A training technique which requires student teachers to teach a single concept using specified teaching skill to a small number of pupils in a short duration time. The most important point in microteaching is that teachingis practiced in terms of definable, observable, measurable and controllable teaching skills’.
Sharma (1981) defined microteaching as “A specific teacher training technique through which trainee practices the various teaching skills in a specific situation with the help of feedback with a view to increase the student’s involvement. Specific situation means small time to practice (5 – 7 minutes), small number of pupils (5 –
7) and-small-length of practicing material.
Prepositions of Micro-teaching
The basic prepositions underlying microteaching are as follows:
1. It is a real teaching.
2. It simplifies the classroom teaching in terms of class size, time, content etc.
3. It focuses on training for the accomplishment of specific tasks.
4. It allows for the increased control of practice. In practice setting of microteaching, various factors like time, students, methods of feedback and supervision etc. can be manipulated.
5. It greatly expands the normal knowledge of result of feedback dimension in teaching. Immediately after teaching a micro-lesson, the trainee gets a feedback about his performance and several sources of feedback may be used.
Principles of Micro-teaching
On the basis of the learning theories, the following principles underlie the concept of microteaching
1. Capabilities of the learner must consider when a decision of what to teach is made. In pursuance of this principle, a trainee is given the opportunity to select a lesson content in an area of his greatest competence so that he may feel at ease with the subject matter.
2. The learner must be motivated intrinsically. In line with this principle, intrinsic motivation in the context of microteaching is created through cognitive and effective discrepancy between his ideas, self concept a teacher and his real teaching.
3. Goals are to be realistically set. In keeping with this principle in the microteaching setting, attempt is made to modify only modifiable behaviour which trainee wants to change.
4. Only one element of modifiable behaviour is to be worked on at a time. In pursuance of this principle, in any microteaching session a trainee practices one skill at a time and moves to the next only after he has achieved mastery over it.
5. Active participation by the student is necessary in order to modify his behaviour substantially. In accordance with this principle, in any micro-teaching situation a trainee engages actively in practicing a skill in which he wants to be perfect.
6. Knowledge and information about one’s performance helps the learner. Transfer of learning will be better if the learner gets thefeedback related to his performance. In view of this principle, if any microteaching session a trainee is provided knowledge and information about his performance by supervisor with or without the help of videotape or an audio tape.
7. Transfer is maximized due to immediate feedback which informs the trainees of their defective practices before they become habitual. According to this principle, in microteaching setting a trainee is provided immediate feedback regarding his performance, thereby eliminating any chance of wrong practice.
8. Spaced distributive recalls are advantageous as learning and maintenance of a skill are best accomplished through spaced practice over a period of time. In keeping with this principle, in microteaching, students are provided experience in various skills over a considerable length of time.
Process of Micro-teaching
The microteaching programme generally consisted of two phases namely, orientation phase and practice phase.
1. Orientation phase
The purpose of this phase is to bring a clear understanding of the microteaching technique, teaching skill, process of feedback, observation of the lesson, preparation of lesson plan, aid other elements of micro-teaching. This phase forms a base to practiceparticular teaching skill.
2. Practice phase
The practice phase is the main phase of the micro-teaching programme. In this phase, trainees practice the required teaching skill. The trainee does so by following the six steps mentioned below. The completion of these steps means one microteaching cycle. This cycle may continue till the trainee mastered the given skill. Each step of the microteaching cycle is given below
1. The trainee plans a short lesson which he can use the skill which he wants to practice.
2. Trainee teaches the lesson to small group of pupils which is videotaped or audiotape or observed by supervisor and/or peer(s).
3. Feedback is provided to the student teacher by videotape or audiotape recorder or who observes, and analyses his lesson with the help of supervisor. The supervisor attempts to make so inforcing comments about instances of effective use of the skill anddraws the student’s attention to other situations where the skill could have been exercised.
4. In the light of feedback and supervisor’s comments, the student teacher replans the lesson in order to use the skill more effectively.
5. The revised lesson is retaught to different but comparable group of pupils.
6. Feedback is again provided (re-feedback) on the re-teach lesson which is analyzed with the help of the supervisor.
7. The ‘teach-reteach’ cycle may be repeated till adequate level of skill-acquisition takes place.
Importance of Microteaching
The importance of microteaching has been discussed under the following heads
1. It is a safe practice
Practice is essential for many learning activities. Practice is the normal class-room whether by a student teacher or by experienced teacher brings with it certain constraints. It is felt that students are to be skillfully taught, not practiced on. Practice maytake place within a larger block of time. It must be integrated into the flow of longer lesson. Most important factor taking in our classroom teaching is the limited opportunity for the student teacher to receive feedback for his performance.
2. A focused instrument
Teaching is a complex activity. It can be analyzed into component skills or behaviours. The microteaching environmentenables a student teacher to focus attention on and practice on specific skill at a time until he acquires competence in it. Provision of feedback accelerates this process. After acquiring competence in a number of skills in this way, the student teacher takes to microteaching.
3. A vehicle for continuous training
Microteaching is a useful vehicle for providing continuous training to serving teachers. Most of the teachers who reach their professional plateau do not want to improve their skill of teaching. This is also true of the teachers who enjoy high reputation for their skill of teaching. The main reason for such a tendency is that they do not find a way to experiment with new skills of teaching and thereby improve upon them. Microteaching helps in over coming such lacuna. It provides setting for experimentation. Again with the introduction of new curriculum, teachers are required to acquire new skills of teaching. .Microteaching helps them in acquiring such skills.
4. Modeling instructional skills
The microteaching setting demonstrations of good teaching given by teachers can be recorded on videotape or observed by supervisor. Such a recording or observation analyzed to identify component skills comprising teaching which is a complex activity.Similarly, sub-behaviours underlying each skill can also be identified. This knowledge so obtained helps in building models of various component teaching skills. These models are presented before the trainees so that they may make their behaviours according to the models of the skills by practicing in the microteaching setting.
5. A new approach to supervision
The approach to supervision under microteaching is non-evaluative. In the microteaching setting a supervisor acts as a guide or an adviser. He helps the trainee teacher or the practicing teacher to improve his skill of teaching. Before the commencement of practice, both the teacher and supervisor are clear about the objective to be achieved or skill to be demonstrated. They are also clear about the mode and instrument of assessment to be used. Such a procedure provides common frame of reference for the supervisor and the trainee for a dialogue. The suggestions given by the supervisor are incorporated in the new lesson or reteach practice.
6. A new research too
There are many variables which may affect the teaching-learning process. Such variables are the size of class, quality of the student, the length of the period, the motivation of the students etc. Microteaching helps the researcher to exercise control over suchvariables and thereby enables him to see the effect of independent variables over the dependent variables. Microteaching is also suitable for pilot studies. Before embarking on large experiments same problem can be worked out in micro-teaching setting.
TERMS USED: Feedback
The provision of feedback is one of the main components of microteaching procedure. After the practice of a particular skill, the student teacher wants to know about his performance, weak points and suggestions for further improvement of that skill. Thus the process of proving the information regarding the teaching performance of a teacher for improving upon his teaching behaviour in subsequentmicro-teaching session and/or actual class performance is known as feedback.
Feedback is the process whereby the individual gains information concerning the correctness of his previous responses so that he can adjust his behaviour to compensate for errors.
It involves a complex interaction between motives, goals and information regarding progress, toward these goals, a more inclusive expression than knowledge of results which it is tending to replace.
Feedback is information concerning the correctness of previous responses but the correctness of previous responses can also be informed through reinforcers.
A teaching skill is defined as a set of teacher behaviours which are especially effective in bringing about desired changes in pupils.There are various skills that can be usefully developed among student teachers.
Allen and Ryan (1969) had identified the following fourteen general teaching skills that can be applied at many levels, for teaching different subjects.
1.Stimulus variation 2.Set induction3. Set induction4. Closure5. Reinforcement of student participation
6. Fluency in asking questions7. Probing questions8. Higher order questions 9. Divergent questions10. Recognizing attending behavior11. Illustrating and use of examples12. Lecturing13. Planned repetition 14.Completeness of communication
Passi (1976) in his book ‘Becoming Better Teacher- Microteaching Approach’ has discussed the following general teaching skills.
1. Writing Instructional objectives 2.Introducing a lesson 3.Fluency in questioning 4.Probing questioning 5.Explaining 6.Illustration with examples 7.Stimulus variation 8.Reinforcement 9.Silence and non-verbal cues 10.Increasing pupil participation 11.Using black-board 12.Achieving closure 13.Recognizing attending behaviour
But now the trend has changed. The researchers have started identifying the skills needed for teaching a particular subject and grade. In this context, Rama (1978) has identified fourteen skills for teaching Physics at secondary level.
These are a follows :
1.General Teaching competency 2.Class-room management 3.The use of questions 4.Initiating pupil participation 5.The use of black-board 6.Recognizing attending behavior 7.Achieving closure 8.Logical exposition 9.Teacher concern for students 10.Using Audio-visual aids 11.Professional perception 12.Giving assignment 13.Illustrating with examples 14.Pacing while introducing
Passi and Sharma (1981) have identified nineteen teaching skills for teaching language at secondary level. These skills are
1.Giving assignment 2.Loud reading 3.Asking questions 4. Introducing a lesson 5. Managing class-room 6.Clarification 7. Secondary loud reading 8. Using black-board 9. Using reinforcement 10.Pacing 11. Avoiding repetition 12. Consolidating the lesson 13. Dealing with pupils’ responses 14. Improving pupil’s behavior 15. Using secondary reinforcement 16. Audiobility 17. Recognizing pupils’ attending behavior 18. Presenting verbal mode
19. Shifting sensory channel
There are two types of teaching skills : 1.General Teaching skills 2. Specific teaching skills
Genera1 teaching skills help in the teaching of different subjects whereas specific teaching skills help to teach a particular subject keeping in the mind, the importance of specific teaching skills, and the trend has been started to identify the skills for a particular subject at a particular grade. NCERT (1981) has taken a project to identify the skills required for teaching primary level.
According to the importance and need in the opinion of researcher the following skills are of great importance.
1. Introducing a lesson 2. Fluency and probing in questioning 3. Explaining with the writing of black-board 4.Illustration with examples 5. Stimulus variation 6. Silence and non-verbal cues 7. Reinforcement 8.Achieving closure 9. Recognizing attending behaviour.
But the researcher will lay more emphasis on five skills.
1. Skill of Reinforcement 2. Skill of probing questioning 3. Skill of stimulus variation 4. Skill of illustrating with examples 5.Skill of explaining
The time duration of each skill is 5 minutes.
1. Skill of Reinforcement
Reinforcement is a term that belongs to the stimulus response (S-R) theoretical paradigms. Reinforcement is a theoretical construct. It was first used by Pavlov in connection with his classic experiments with dogs.
According to Dictionary of Education by Good, reinforcement is defined as : “Strengthening of a conditioned response byreintroducing the original unconditioned stimulus”.
“Increase in response strengthens when the response, leads to the reduction of a drive”.
Reinforcing desired pupil-behaviour through the use of positive reinforcing behaviour is an integral part of learning process. This skill involves teacher encouraging pupils’ responses or any desirable behaviour using verbal statements like good, continue, etc. or non-verbal cues like a smile, nodding the hand, etc.
2. Skill of probing Questioning
Probing requires that teacher asks questions that require pupils to go beyond superficial ‘first answer’ questions. This can be done in five ways.
1. Asking the pupil for more information and/or more meaning. 2. Requiring the pupil to rationally justify his response.
3. Refocusing the pupils or class’s attention on a related issue. 4.Prompting the pupil or giving him hints.
5.Redirecting the question to other pupil.
3. Skil1 of Stimulus variation
This skill is related to classroom attention. It is based on the principle, which changes in stimuli in one’s perception captures hisattention or uniformity in the perceived environment distracts his attention. This skill involves deliberate changing of various attention producing behaviours by the teachers in order to keep pupil’s attention at high level. Such behaviours include teacher movements, gestures, change in speech patterns, focusing, changing interaction styles, shifting sensory channels, pausing and such others.
4. Skill of illustrating with examples :
Examples are necessary to clarify, verify, or substantiate concepts. Both inductive and deductive uses of examples can be usedeffectively by the teacher. Effective use of examples includes :
1. Starting with simple examples and progressing to more complex ones. 2. Starting with examples relevant to students
3.Relating the examples to the principles or ideas being taught. 4. Checking to see if the objectives of the lesson have teen achieved by asking students to give examples which illustrate the main points.
5. Skill of Explaining
In a classroom, an explanation is a set of interrelated statements made by the teacher related to a phenomenon, an idea:, etc. in order to bring about or increase understanding in the pupils about it. The teacher should practice more and more of desirablebehviours like using explaining links using beginning and concluding statements and testing pupil understands behaviours like making irrelevant statements, lacking in continuity, using inappropriate vocabulary, lacking influency, and using vague words and phrases as far as possible.
In India, Microteaching is a recent innovative techniques of training teachers. It has been introduced in some universities and teachers training Institutions for the last few years as part of their regular practice teaching programme.
During the last few years so many secondary teachers’ education institutions have tried this technique as part of a research project. It has been felt that a sound training strategy should be worked out which is based on the available research findings. The results of this experiment therefore have direct relevance to this need.
The findings will prove useful in effective micro-teaching as a powerful supplement to the existing student teaching programme.
The N.C.E.R.T. Microteaching project carried out during 75—76 provided ample proof in support of micro-teaching as on effective technique of developing specific teaching skills and teaching competency in pupil teachers. The present experiment involving various components of microteaching and their important variations. Therefore, large scale orientation programme for teacher educator will have to the organized to train then in the microteaching technique and to help them plain and carry out more effective pupil teaching programme using micro-teaching as a supplementary device.
For wider adoption of microteaching technique is an integral part of normal pupil teaching programme, the B.Ed. curriculum, particularly the student teaching and its evaluation may be revised. Objectives should be tested in terms of teaching skills and specific teacher behaviour.
Though this innovation is the only innovation which has been tried out too vigorously in the area of teacher education, still it needs more vigorous researches. Some studies may be undertaken to throw more light on the promise of technique and it use in improving teaching competence and integration of skills in pre-services as well as in-service teachers, some studies will be conductedto increase efficiency of the technique in terms of economizing inputs, or in terms of improved output and in term of training effects and their retention.
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Dr. shivpal singh